Bread Making Process – A Guide for the bread maker

There are a lot of steps involved in making bread. Some are optional, some are not (you’ll have to put it in an oven at some point!). Bread making may seem daunting, but once you understand why you have to take the different steps and have the tools to take the steps, it won’t be as daunting any more. Being a food scientist, making a simple diagram of the different steps should help you out here. Whether you want to make just one loaf or a whole shop full, the process remains the same.

Step 0: The Ingredients

For every bread, or every food that is, you always start with: the ingredients. For making the simplest of breads (not taking into account flatbreads, only yeast risen breads), you only need:

  • Flour (most common is wheat flour): there are a lot of different flours, if using wheat flour, choose a bread flour or all purpose flour (not cake flour) or a whole wheat flour, there are a lot of choices (bread flour, and browse through to see all the other types!)
  • Water
  • Yeast

The flour will form the basic structure of the bread. The gluten in flour help a yeast risen bread to become nice and airy and hold onto air inside the dough. The water will bring those gluten molecules together and it will ensure the bread becomes soft. Last but not least, the yeast will contribute to the flavour and it will form gas which will create the desired air bubbles in bread. It does this through fermentation. For more details on the role of ingredients, have a look at our separate post on the topic.


Step 1: Mixing

Now that we’ve got our ingredients, it’s time to mix them! Even though mixing sounds simple (and of course, at the core it is!) it’s a very important step. When making bread it greatly helps to mix the dry ingredients first (without any filling though such as raisins, etc.) before adding the wet ingredients (such as water, butter, milk). Mixing doesn’t cost any effort/energy as long as there are no wet ingredients. So not adding the wet while you’re still mixing the dry saves effort.

Mixing assures all ingredients are spread out oer the bread evenly. It assures yeast is spread out through the entire dough and thus makes it evenly fluffy. Also, it ensures the salt is mixed through evenly. Since too much salt will prevent growth of yeast, it prevents (local) inhibition of yeast growth.

Even mixing should be done with care. Yeast can be killed if the moisture added is too hot. Take warm water, but only as warm as you can touch and drink. Boiling water or any water well above 40°C will kill the yeast.

Step 2: Resting & hydrating

This step is not fully necessary, but when mixing by hand or using a lot of whole wheat flour this can definitely help. This phase consists of leaving the dough mix just like that for about 30 minutes.

During this resting period the flour hydrates, more specifically the starch and gluten of the flour are hydrated by water. Water seeps into the grains and will sit around the molecules. If a flour has more fibers and grainy parts (as is the case for coarse whole meal flour for instance), it takes longer for water to travel through. Often a dough is a lot softer and more flexible after resting. It tends to make it easier to knead in the next step.

Step 3: Kneading

There are a lot of recipes out there for breads that don’t require any kneading (what about using a LoafNest?). And it’s true, good breads can be made without any real kneading, although they do tend to require more time and patience. Kneading helps the formation of a light and airy bread. Its main role here is gluten development, gluten are proteins in flour. Kneading stretches the gluten and connects the various gluten molecules with one another. This creates a gluten network

Kneading also introduces air into the dough. These air bubbles are essential for creating an airy bread. Even though yeast will produce gas during rising, it has been found that no new air bubbles are necessarily formed during rising. Instead, existing air bubbles tend to grow. Therefore, creating these air pockets during kneading is vital. It’s these air pockets that allow bread to become fluffy.

Kneading by hand

Kneading by hand requires practice and patience. There are several techniques for doing so, repeatedly smashing the dough on the counter, pulling it apart and many more (watch Great British Bake Off bread baking episodes for great examples. However, personally, I’ve never become good enough at this, resulting in dense breads. A good electric mixer really makes your life a lot easier, saving you time and improving your bread (if your kneading skills aren’t up to scratch just yet).

Electric mixers

The type of mixer suited for your needs mostly depends on the quantities of bread you make. If you’re a home baker with max. 1-2 breads per baking session, I would recommend a regular Kitchenaid stand mixer (it’s what I have) with the dough hook. I wouldn’t recommend buying the mini version, some bread doughs can be pretty tough to knead for the regular mixer already, I don’t think the mini will make it.

One size larger would be the professional version of the Kitchenaid mixer. It isn’t that much larger, but does also have a bit more power. For even larger sizes, we don’t have any personal experience anymore. A common brand of commercial mixers are Hobart mixers, when visiting the Boudin sourdough bakery in San Francisco we saw they used Kemper kneaders. When considering these sizes and up plugs might not work in regular electricity plugs anymore.

Kitchenaid stand mixer
Our KitchenAid mixer, our best friend for kneading bread.

Step 4: First proofing / Bulk fermentation

Once a dough has been made it is ready for its first rise, also called bulk or first fermentation. As mentioned in the kneading stage: in order to make a fluffy bread air pockets have to be made. These are grown through fermentation of the yeast. Yeast consume sugars (glucose) and converts this into energy. While doing this carbon dioxide (CO2) is formed. This is a gas and causes the dough to expand.

Yeast have an optimal growth temperature. In other words, they don’t grow (or very slow) at temperatures below this growth temperature or above this growth temperature. If the temperature is too high it may even be killed. In the fridge yeast still produce gas, but it’s at a lower rate than at room temperature. Nevertheless, these lower temperatures also cause other reactions to occur which develop a lot of flavours!

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Apart from controlling temperature, humidity also plays an important role at this point. You do not want the dough to dry out. You can prevent this by properly covering the bowl in which the dough is rising. Take care though that the dough doesn’t touch the cover (keeping in mind that it will still grow), to prevent sticking. In most cases you can do this first proofing period in your mixing bowl which protects the dough against drying out on the sides and makes it easy to cover. A great way to cover your bowls is to use a shower cap, it’s waterproof and puff up so the dough will be able to grow without it touching the cap!

dough rising with shower cap on top
A shower cap gives the dough plenty space to rise. If you use transparent ones you can even see what’s going on in there :-).

Some may use a proofing drawer or an oven that can go to low temperatures. This can help speed up a recipe, but in some cases it can also result in a lower quality bread.

Proofing doesn’t require fancy equipment, your bowls, towels and plastic foil (underneath the towels) work just fine.

Step 5: Shaping

Once the first fermentation is finished the dough has to be taken from the bowl you’re proven it in and split into the required dough sizes. Using a dough scraper (use the plastic one to take dough from a bowl and use the metal one to cut the dough into pieces) here will make your life a lot easier, I say so from personal experience, it will help to prevent your fingers being all doughy even before you started shaping.

It is now time to shape the bread and this was probably one of the steps that is highly influential of the final look of the bread, but is pretty hard to get right without some proper practice. Shaping the bread after the first rising process helps to create a better structure of the bread.

Before shaping the bread the freshly risen bread should be pressed down again and air bubbles should be removed. This will give the bread another chance to rise again since the yeast is fed again with sugars in the dough. Also, it prevents too large bubbles from forming.

After the air has been pushed out you shape your bread. Of course, during shaping you determine the final type of bread you’re making, whether it’s long, round or square. But a good ‘shaper’ shapes the bread in such a way that a tension is created on the outside of the bread. This will make a more even bread when baked.

Here’s a nice short video giving just one way to shape your bread, there are a lot of different techniques that can be used.

Apart from your hands, flour and a working surface shaping a dough doesn’t require a lot of other tools. Larger scale production units will have equipment that shapes the bread using a smart system of rollers and folders, we’ve seen some of these at the Boudin Bakery in San Francisco.

Step 6: Rising no. 2 / Second fermentation

Now the bread is ready to rise again, however, since it has been shaped quite carefully, it is important that it is risen in such a way that it can rise and be moved without ruining the shape. You don’t want bread sticking to anything that won’t enter the oven with the bread.

The simplest way to rise the bread is on the baking tray you’ll be using to bake it on. However, not all bread will keep their shape on the tray. Another option is to proof the bread in the baking pan, but this does tend to increase the risk of the dough sticking to the pan after baking, nor does it allow you to pre-heat to the baking tray. This is why a lot of bakers use bread baskets which have been floured quite heavily to proof the dough. The flouring prevents the dough from sticking, allowing you to transfer it once it’s been proven for long enough.

Again, take care to cover up the dough during proofing so it won’t dry out and become less flexible.


If you’re making more complex breads (think baguettes), you might need more advanced ways of proving the dough. Baguette dough is shaped into a baguette, but it won’t be firm enough to hold its shape. It is very prone to relaxing back down, instead of rising up. This is why baguette dough will support each other, to keep their shape. You can do this using a regular heavily floured tea towel. However, there are also various tools available to make your life easier (e.g. a couche for the baguettes).

A regular (IKEA) towel, heavily floured, to hold on to the baguettes.

Step 7: Scoring

This is also a step which is easily overlooked! Scoring is nothing more than making a nice pattern on top of your bread. You have to do this right before baking. Besides the fact that it gives your bread a personal touch or makes it easier to differentiate different bread types, it also has an actual function during baking. Because of the shaping of the bread, you’ve given the bread strength. But, when the bread is put into the oven, you want it to be able to rise and expand. By scoring the bread, it has more space to open up!

You can do scoring with anything sharp, but not always to regular little knives give the look you’re looking for. That’s why there exist special scoring knives for doing this.

See the pattern on top? Before it went into the oven these were just lines in the top of the bread. The oven has caused the bread to expand and form wide lanes.

Step 8: Baking

Baking is where your bread becomes a bread. During baking a lot of things happen. First of all, the yeast gets one last growth spike. Just before it dies because of the high heat it will greatly increase in speed thanks to the nice warm temperature. This causes the loaf to expand (especially if you’ve scored it nicely). Second, the bread actually cooks. Moisture evaporates, gluten networks are fixed and starch cooks (gelatinizes). Moreover, the Maillard reaction occurs, causing your bread to turn a nice golden brown.

The temperature of your oven influences how your bread turns out. A higher heat will give a darker crust more quickly. But, if the bread is very large, the outside may be nearly black whereas the inside is not yet cooked. Higher heats give thinner and softer crusts whereas lower heats give thicker crusts. The lower heat makes you having to bake your bread longer, so more moisture evaporates. This moisture evaporation is essential to make a crispy crust.

Baking pans

It does matter on or in what you bake the bread. A baking pan helps a softer, more flexible dough to hold its shape during baking. We use both cast iron baking pans as well as simpler aluminium baking pans. Both work well for baking bread.

If you’re baking bread on a tray, whether it’s one or a few breads, you might want to use a silicone mat to bake the breads on (work great on this baking sheet). This makes cleaning so much easier.

Last but not least, you can also bake on a baking stone. This should give you a crispier crust. Personally, I haven’t used the method often. Instead of a separate baking stone, a conventional cast iron plate will also work!

lodge cast-iron grill + griddle
The cast iron grill + griddle, of course, bake the bread on the reverse side which is flat.

Step 9: Cooling & Eating

Nothing much to say her! The most essential part of the bread making process. Take the bread out of the oven. Let it cool (slicing hot bread is recipe for disaster, it will fall apart so easily) and enjoy!

Study & improve

Once you’ve made your first breads, keep on improving the process. Here we advise a few books that can help you get even better in baking bread.

  • Brilliant Bread: a bread baking book for the beginning/intermediate home baker
  • Modernist bread: If you’re really passionate about bread, this would be a great bread for you. The authors have virtually tested just about everything for making bread. They’ve also made a podcast which might be a more budget friendly matter of getting acquainted with them.
  • Professional bread making: For the professional bread maker, looking for some more background

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  1. Here’s a question about the science of waiting to eat your fresh baked bread. One of my bread cookbooks (“Breads from La Brea Bakery,” by Nancy Silverton) says that bread fresh from the oven is “still giving off carbon dioxide” and if you don’t wait for it to cool long enough, you’ll have a stomach ache a few hours later. Does this make sense? It seems that the dough pockets are closed, so carbon dioxide can’t escape from the interior. But as the bread cools, might the carbon dioxide dissolve into the bread to form a different substance?

    My baking stone of choice is the “unglazed quarry tile”, terra cotta tiles that are roughly 10 cm x 10 cm x 1 cm, which I purchased at a home improvement store for about US$0.50 each.

    • Hi, what a great question! I’ve recently seen the Netflix show on Nancy Silverton and value her knowledge very highly, she’s tested a ton of recipes and has greatly studied bread. That makes me hesitant to immediately say it’s not something you have to be worried about, although it would be my response to you.

      The reaction she might be referring to is that carbon dioxide can participate in acid/base reactions forming the component H2CO3. Carbon dioxide is a gas which also sits in the atmosphere, be it at not so high concentrations, so breathing some in won’t hurt as you’re already doing that. Since it is a gas, even if the bread is still producing it, it will disappear into the air very quickly, it will have evaporated long before you had the time to take your slice of bread, put some butter on it and bring it to your mouth.

      That said, is there still carbon dioxide being formed in the bread? I doubt it, most of the yeast will have died because of the heat and the yeast is what produces most of the carbon dioxide. I would also say that as soon as you’ve munched on the bread and digested it, it will pretty much stop doing that reaction, especially since your stomach is very acidic.

      Last but not least, if you’re worried about carbon dioxide being harmful, you might want to think about sodas first. They definitely contain a lot more dissolved carbon dioxide than your freshly baked bread!

      The main reasons for waiting for your bread to cool down in my opinion are:
      1) You don’t want to burn your mouth 🙂
      2) If you want to slice the bread, it is so much easier if it has had the chance to cool down and firm up a little

      Hope my thoughts are clear, all in all, I wouldn’t worry about it too much 🙂

    • Hi!

      There are so many different types of bread out there, what style/type are you looking for? In my experience a mix of 500g of flour (bread flour, or a mix of flours) + 375g of water + 1 tsp yeast + 1/2 tsp salt is a good starting point for a simple bread recipe.

  2. Hi

    I’m perplexed after witnessing the bread-making process. This article has provided me with a wealth of information. I have a question about how to make the Saj Bread perfectly.

    • Hi Spinning Grillers,

      We haven’t made Saj bread before I’m afraid. We’ll have to put that on our to-make list! I did find this article to be quite helpful in learning more about it, maybe that gives you a good starting point?

  3. I loved your information on mixing bread. We own a very small coffee shop and decided to start making rolls and cookies. It is interesting that you should mix the dry ingredients first before you add the liquid parts. I like how you said that not putting in the water, etc while you’re mixing the dry saves energy. We are thinking of purchasing a kneader mixer from an industrial equipment supply to save even more effort. A professional could give us the best advice.

  4. I would like to understand why retarding the dough is so important in bread making? Some recipes suggest retarding the baguette dough after it has been shaped, some before, some suggest simply making a preferment and then the dough is ready in four hours. I am also curious about what sets the timing for the bread fermentation– if I punch down the dough after the second rise, will it rise again?

    • Hi Mita,

      Great question, that doesn’t have a clear answer. There are a lot of ways to make bread, some with long waits, others with fast processes. You can make a perfectly fine bread without retarding the dough (retarding the dough = storing the dough at lower temperatures, e.g. in the fridge to slow down fermentation). There can be several reasons you might decide to retard the dough, here are just a few:

      • Flavor: longer, slower fermentation of the bread changes the flavor of the dough. It can develop more depth, the yeast has more time to make flavor molecules. In some cases, it can make the bread a little sour, which can be very desirable for some.
      • Gluten network development: no-knead breads often have very long (cool) proofing times. The lack of mixing is compensated for by letting the dough rest for long. This helps the gluten to organize.
      • Time management: If you want to bake the bread at another time than making the dough, you can retard it. This way you can for instance make the dough in the evening, and bake the bread in the morning.

      Whichever method you choose, you can probably make a good bread!

      Then there’s your second question, on timing bread fermentation. How long you need to ferment for again depends on a lot of factors, for instance:

      • The amount of yeast: if you add more yeast, you should proof the dough for a shorter period of time. If you add very little yeast, you might need to proof it significantly longer.
      • Temperature: yeast grows faster at higher temperatures (until it’s too hot) and slower at lower temperatures. So, if you prove your dough in the fridge, it will need a lot longer to develop enough gas bubbles for the bread to raise.

      Yeast will continue to grow as long as there is enough ‘food’ and as long as the other conditions are desirable. Whether or not your yeast will continue to grow after punching it down after the second raise depends on whether the conditions are still good enough. If you’ve already proofed the bread for a long period of time, that may not be the case, whereas if you had two quick proofing periods, it might not be a problem.

      Generally speaking, making bread is a very flexible process! You can play around and vary a lot of parameters and still end up with bread.

      Hope that makes sense!

      • Thank you so much for the detailed reply. There is a lot of tradition in bread making and as a scientist I love your explanation of the process.

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